In order to improve their innovation outputs, companies ar e trying to harness their employees’ creativity in more systematic ways. Bootlegging is known to be a way employees exert their creativity secretly in the organizations they work for by pursuing innovation projects on their own and without managerial control . This research studies bootlegging projects at BMW, the German automobile company, in order to shed light on the phenomenon and to provide insights to companies on the extent to which they should encourage or manage bootlegg ing in their organizations.