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Abstract

The paper presents and evaluates three advanced methods for the characterization of the low-voltage (LV) grid access impedance for the frequency range assigned to Narrow Band-Power Line Communications (NB-PLC): 9 kHz to 500 kHz. This study responds to the recent demand from both regulatory bodies and Distribution System Operators about the need for accurate and validated methods for this frequency band, due to the limited knowledge of the impedance values in the electrical grid and their influence on NB-PLC transmission channels. In this paper, the results of a collaborative work to develop different proposals to overcome the challenges for the proper characterization of the frequency and time-varying grid impedance, from different theoretical approaches, are presented. The methods are compared in a controlled and isolated scenario: the impedance characterization of passive filters. Then, the results are validated two-fold: first, against theoretical simulations, based on the schematics provided by the manufacturer, and second, against the measurement results of a precision impedance meter, used as a reference of accuracy. The results demonstrate a high degree of precision of the three proposals to characterize the access impedance of the LV grid.

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