The risk of cracking/debonding of a cement overlay used to repair or strengthen an existing structure is still a key issue. Current bond test methods are not designed to measure the combined effect of peeling (mode I) and shear (mode II) on the interface. A few existing models propose theoretical approaches to predict that, but they were fitted on specific cases and lack in generality. In addition, controversial opinions about the influence of both the moisture level of the substrate surface prior to the application of the overlay and properties of the latter on the loading bond capacity call for further investigations. In this work, a cohesive model is developed to predict the loading bond capacity of an existing concrete structure overlaid by a layer of HPFRC/UHPFRC. Different bond tests were specifically designed for calibrating the cohesive parameters employed into the model, which also takes into account the type of the overlay used and the moisture conditioning level. An experimental campaign confirmed the reliability of the predictions of the proposed theoretical model.