This study examined the psychometric properties of the French version of the reactive-proactive aggression questionnaire (RPQ). A total of 124 adolescents from the general population and 134 institutionalised adolescents completed the French version of the RPQ, along with other measures of externalising behaviours (aggression and delinquency), psychopathic traits and impulsivity. A confirmatory factor analysis supports the two-factor structure, namely proactive and reactive. Good internal consistency in both samples was observed. The construct validity was adequate with correlations between (1) both forms of aggression and externalising behaviours, (2) reactive aggression and impulsivity, and (3) proactive aggression and psychopathic traits. Moreover, the institutionalised group reported higher proactive and reactive aggression compared with the community one whereas boys reported higher proactive aggression than girls. The French version of the RPQ had adequate psychometric properties indicating its validity and utility.