Siderophores are secondary metabolites produced by different organisms in order to scavenge iron from their surrounding environment making this essential element available to the cell. Presenting high affinity for ferric iron, siderophores are secreted out to form soluble ferric complexes that can be taken up by the organisms. Siderophores present complex chemistry that allows them to form the strongest ironchelating complexes. Interest in this field is always up to date and new siderophores are found with new roles and applications. For example, siderophores participate to the mobilization of iron and other elements and are involved in virulence processes. Recently, a strong relation between siderophores and oxidative stress tolerance has been also highlighted. Their application in medicine has been widely studied as well as in agriculture. However, new fields are paying attention to the use of siderophores as green-iron chelators. In particular, siderophores have been proposed for the preservation of cultural heritage.