Purpose : Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is a well-recognized independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and its prevalence is increasing. OSA symptomology, polysomnographic features, and comorbidities are heterogeneous among patients. Ethnicity is thought to influence OSA phenotypes, but extensive knowledge of OSA ethnic patterns is lacking. The primary aim of the present study was to compare comorbidities in Caucasian and African OSA. Secondary aims were to observe OSA symptomatology, polysomnographic characteristics, and CPAP adherence in these two ethnic groups. Methods : In this retrospective study, 1717 patients suffering from moderate/severe OSA were included between 2013 and 2017. Data on demographics, symptomatology, comorbidities, polysomnographic characteristics, and CPAP adherence were collected. Data were analyzed to identify potential differences between Caucasians and Africans. Results : Despite healthier lifestyles and lower BMI, a higher prevalence of diabetes but less cardiac comorbidities and dyslipidemia was observed in the African population. Younger African patients (< 56 years) suffered more from cognitive impairment than Caucasians and both younger and older Africans complained more of nighttime choking than Caucasians. In analysis of polysomnographic data, Africans had higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in REM sleep, lower supine AHI, lower desaturation time, and lower periodic leg movements index. Conclusions : Compared with Caucasians, African OSA showed a particular comorbidity profile. There are younger patients who exhibit more diabetes but less cardiac comorbidities than the Caucasians. African diabetics should be more promptly referred for OSA testing. Moreover, as they suffer more often from choking and cognitive impairment, OSA treatment could positively impact their quality of life.