Poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(LA-co-3HB)] is produced in engineered Escherichia coli harboring the genes encoding an LA-polymerizing enzyme (LPE) and monomer-supplying enzymes. In this study, high cell-density fed-batch jar fermentation was developed using xylose and/or glucose as the carbon source. Fed-batch fermentation was initially performed with 20 g/L sugar during the batch phase for 24 h, and subsequent sugar feeding from 24 to 86 h. The feeding rate was increased in a stepwise manner. When xylose alone was used for cultivation, the cells produced the polymer at 11.6 g/L, which was higher than the 4.3 g/L obtained using glucose as the sole carbon source. However, in the first 24 h the growth in the glucose culture was greater than in the xylose culture. Based on these results, glucose was used for cell growth (at the initial stage) and xylose was used for polymer production (at the feeding stage). As expected, in the glucose/xylose switching fermentation method, polymer production was significantly enhanced, eventually reaching 26.7 g/L. The enhanced polymer production obtained by using xylose was presumably due to overflow metabolism. In fact, during xylose feeding, acetic acid excretion was greater than that in case of the glucose grown culture, suggesting the channeling of the metabolic flux from acetyl-CoA towards polymer production over into the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the xylose-fed cultures. Therefore, this sequential glucose/xylose feed strategy is potentially useful for production of acetyl-CoA derived compounds in E. coli.