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Abstract

Since its introduction in the nineties, the concept of Living Lab has evolved from a space where technological innovations is tested directly by users for an innovation eco-system. The creation of the European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL) in 2006 characterizes this evolution. Although Living Lab are well disseminated around the world, there is a lack of consensus on how a Living Lab should be organized (macro level), which types of projects are considered as Living Lab projects (meso-level) and which methods should be used (micro level) (Schuurman, et al., 2015). Furthermore, Living Lab need tools to evaluate the performance of its output (Schuurman, et al., 2015). Therefore, we developed here a quasi-experimental research design framework using analogue observation to evaluate the performance of a Living Lab output. In this paper, we illustrate how to operationalize this research design framework in a case study that aims at introducing Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) in a city in Switzerland.

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