This chapter introduces the general notions and the aims of primary health care and primary nursing care. The focus of this chapter is on the role of nursing care and the promotion of health in the area of oncology along the person’s entire health path. In this chapter particularly attention is paid to oncological care in the home setting, with a description of the targeted care approach among children, adolescents, and elderly individuals. Palliative care is also addressed in connection with primary health care. This chapter should be of interest to students in the area of nursing care, to caregivers in the area of oncology, in home care or in primary health care.