Open innovation in SMEs remains largely under-researched, particularly using a process-oriented approach. Based on research conducted in France and Switzerland, we present the preliminary comparative qualitative analyses of data collected on 12 French and Swiss SMEs from the social and solidarity economy and the digital economy. We found: (1) differences in open innovation approaches, (2) specificities of drivers and barriers during the open innovation process phases, (3) the network’s role in defining the opening profile of SMEs and (4) variant temporal approaches to the open innovation process. The core of our research concerns SMEs open innovation drivers and barriers and our study provides a starting point to better discuss and understand open innovation processes in SMEs and the factors influencing their modeling.