This chapter describes the remarkable quantitative and qualitative evolution of Swiss doctoral education during the last 20 years and its contribution to the competitiveness of Swiss higher education and research institutions. In parallel to the increase in doctoral students, several elements of doctoral education such as recruitment and supervision practices have been reformed, although not in a systematic way. Many reform initiatives have been carried out in a cooperative manner among traditional universities. Although knowledge transfer has become an increasingly important issue in Swiss higher education and research policies, it has not been central to the reform of doctoral education. It will probably become more prominent in the next reform step. On one hand, the doctoral graduates’ situation in the nonacademic labour market has become less comfortable, and the pressure to actively promote the use of their knowledge and competencies in society has increased. On the other hand, requests for the creation of practice-oriented PhD programmes in collaboration with the young universities of applied sciences have become stronger.