This paper aims to identify two di®erent knowledge management (KM) systems and their underlying capabilities by accounting for two contextual factors: organisational structures and type of knowledge. Speci¯cally, it seeks to explore how two di®erent organisational structures (mechanistic and organic) shape the way explicit and tacit knowledge is shared, created, and learned. The paper uses a casebased approach of two sports teams as archetypal contexts to inform management research. Findings suggest that a mechanistic structure (American football) emphasises explicit knowledge for sharing of speci¯c directives, centralised, incremental knowledge creation, and organisational learning through memorisation and repetitious actions. In an organic structure (ice hockey), sharing of tacit knowledge, decentralised novel knowledge creation, and organisational learning through empowered experiential learning episodes are emphasised. Findings illustrate the importance of accounting for organisational structures and knowledge needed for di®erent KM systems geared towards e±ciency and routine work, and °exibility and non-routine work.